The Public Utilities Board (PUB) was established in 1955 to take over the water, gas and electricity departments of the City Council. The PUB was part of the City Council until the latter’s abolishment in 1959, following which it became an independent statutory board. Following a restricting exercise in 2001, the regulation of gas and electricity came under the newly established Energy Market Authority (EMA). The PUB is now in charge of managing Singapore’s limited water resources through a network of reservoirs, waterworks, rivers, drainage and sewerage systems and water recycling plants. To this end, it has developed a desalinated water product called NEWater to serve as an alternative source of potable water in times of national emergency.