This bowl is decorated with incised rim and stamped motifs around the inner walls. There are eight spur marks at the centre.Brown-glazed wares were produced from the 12th to the 17th centuries. Iron-oxide was a natural colourant that produced tones ranging from black to brown, depending on the amount of pigment that was used. Iron-decorated wares are one of the earliest types of export wares to have been produced. However, pieces such as this were likely made for scholarly use within the Vietnamese domestic market.Vietnam entered the international ceramics trade during the 14th century and produced the greatest volume and variety of wares for Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia. However, by the 16th century, due to intense competition from the Chinese kilns, the export of Vietnamese wares to these markets was greatly reduced.