Lienüzhuan is a collection of stories of virtuous and vicious women. There have been various editions of Lienüzhuan over the centuries. The earliest compilation has been attributed to Liu Xiang (79– 8 BCE). The original versions of most of the anecdotes compiled by Liu Xiang had previously appeared in 'Zuo Zhuan' (Zuo’s Tradition), 'Guo Yu' (Sayings of the State) and other Warring States texts. The original Han version is no longer extant; later editions were mostly based on the Song dynasty (960-1279) version. The Lienüzhuan shown here is a Qing dynasty (1644-1911) woodblock printed version originally illustrated by the famous Ming painter, Qiu Ying (c. 1510-1551). As an instruction text for women, it reminded women of their roles and positions in society.